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Übersetzung für 'lightning' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "lightning" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'lightning' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Book Of Ra Deluxe 6 Kostenlos Spielen Ohne Anmeldung uns in Kontakt bleiben. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Lightning ansehen Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. The outer curved lines represent lightning. Elbisch Wörterbücher. While filming from the screen I filmed myself into this scene from Mix-2 by subliminally distorting the time structure. Sims can get a tan, be struck by lightningor catch a cold! Beispiele, die Blitzentladungen enthalten, ansehen Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Aber das hier war schlimmer als Blitz und Donner, und der Regen danach war kein Regen, sondern ein Hagel mit Körnern wie Steine, Jod Gegen Radioaktive Strahlung alles erschlagen, was atmet und lebt.
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The updraft carries the positively charged ice crystals upward toward the top of the storm cloud. The larger and denser graupel is either suspended in the middle of the thunderstorm cloud or falls toward the lower part of the storm.
The result is that the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes positively charged while the middle to lower part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes negatively charged.
The upward motions within the storm and winds at higher levels in the atmosphere tend to cause the small ice crystals and positive charge in the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud to spread out horizontally some distance from the thunderstorm cloud base.
This part of the thunderstorm cloud is called the anvil. While this is the main charging process for the thunderstorm cloud, some of these charges can be redistributed by air movements within the storm updrafts and downdrafts.
In addition, there is a small but important positive charge buildup near the bottom of the thunderstorm cloud due to the precipitation and warmer temperatures.
The actual discharge is the final stage of a very complex process. The science of lightning is called fulminology , and the fear of lightning is called astraphobia.
Many factors affect the frequency, distribution, strength and physical properties of a typical lightning flash in a particular region of the world.
These factors include ground elevation, latitude , prevailing wind currents, relative humidity , proximity to warm and cold bodies of water, etc.
To a certain degree, the ratio between IC in-cloud or intracloud , CC cloud-to-cloud and CG cloud-to-ground lightning may also vary by season in middle latitudes.
Because human beings are terrestrial and most of their possessions are on the Earth where lightning can damage or destroy them, CG lightning is the most studied and best understood of the three types, even though IC and CC are more common types of lightning.
Lightning's relative unpredictability limits a complete explanation of how or why it occurs, even after hundreds of years of scientific investigation.
This occurs from both the mixture of warmer and colder air masses , as well as differences in moisture concentrations, and it generally happens at the boundaries between them.
The flow of warm ocean currents past drier land masses, such as the Gulf Stream , partially explains the elevated frequency of lightning in the Southeast United States.
Because large bodies of water lack the topographic variation that would result in atmospheric mixing, lightning is notably less frequent over the world's oceans than over land.
The North and South Poles are limited in their coverage of thunderstorms and therefore result in areas with the least amount of lightning.
Since the base of a thunderstorm is usually negatively charged, this is where most CG lightning originates. This region is typically at the elevation where freezing occurs within the cloud.
Freezing, combined with collisions between ice and water, appears to be a critical part of the initial charge development and separation process.
During wind-driven collisions, ice crystals tend to develop a positive charge, while a heavier, slushy mixture of ice and water called graupel develops a negative charge.
Updrafts within a storm cloud separate the lighter ice crystals from the heavier graupel, causing the top region of the cloud to accumulate a positive space charge while the lower level accumulates a negative space charge.
Because the concentrated charge within the cloud must exceed the insulating properties of air, and this increases proportionally to the distance between the cloud and the ground, the proportion of CG strikes versus cloud-to-cloud CC or in-cloud IC discharges becomes greater when the cloud is closer to the ground.
In order for an electrostatic discharge to occur, two preconditions are necessary: firstly, a sufficiently high potential difference between two regions of space must exist, and secondly, a high-resistance medium must obstruct the free, unimpeded equalization of the opposite charges.
The atmosphere provides the electrical insulation, or barrier, that prevents free equalization between charged regions of opposite polarity.
It is well understood that during a thunderstorm there is charge separation and aggregation in certain regions of the cloud; however, the exact processes by which this occurs are not fully understood.
As a thundercloud moves over the surface of the Earth, an equal electric charge , but of opposite polarity, is induced on the Earth's surface underneath the cloud.
This is known as an image charge. The induced positive surface charge, when measured against a fixed point, will be small as the thundercloud approaches, increasing as the center of the storm arrives and dropping as the thundercloud passes.
The referential value of the induced surface charge could be roughly represented as a bell curve. The oppositely charged regions create an electric field within the air between them.
This electric field varies in relation to the strength of the surface charge on the base of the thundercloud — the greater the accumulated charge, the higher the electrical field.
The best studied and understood form of lightning is cloud to ground CG. Although more common, intracloud IC and cloud to cloud CC flashes are very difficult to study given there are no "physical" points to monitor inside the clouds.
Also, given the very low probability lightning will strike the same point repeatedly and consistently, scientific inquiry is difficult at best even in the areas of high CG frequency.
As such, knowing flash propagation is similar amongst all forms of lightning, the best means to describe the process is through an examination of the most studied form, cloud to ground.
In a process not well understood, a bidirectional channel of ionized air, called a " leader ", is initiated between oppositely-charged regions in a thundercloud.
Leaders are electrically conductive channels of ionized gas that propagate through, or are otherwise attracted to, regions with a charge opposite of that of the leader tip.
The negative end of the bidirectional leader fills a positive charge region, also called a well, inside the cloud while the positive end fills a negative charge well.
Leaders often split, forming branches in a tree-like pattern. The resulting jerky movement of the leaders can be readily observed in slow-motion videos of lightning flashes.
It is possible for one end of the leader to fill the oppositely-charged well entirely while the other end is still active. When this happens, the leader end which filled the well may propagate outside of the thundercloud and result in either a cloud-to-air flash or a cloud-to-ground flash.
In a typical cloud-to-ground flash, a bidirectional leader initiates between the main negative and lower positive charge regions in a thundercloud.
The weaker positive charge region is filled quickly by the negative leader which then propagates toward the inductively-charged ground.
The positively and negatively charged leaders proceed in opposite directions, positive upwards within the cloud and negative towards the earth.
Both ionic channels proceed, in their respective directions, in a number of successive spurts. Each leader "pools" ions at the leading tips, shooting out one or more new leaders, momentarily pooling again to concentrate charged ions, then shooting out another leader.
The negative leader continues to propagate and split as it heads downward, often speeding up as it gets closer to the Earth's surface. The electric current needed to establish the channel, measured in the tens or hundreds of amperes , is dwarfed by subsequent currents during the actual discharge.
Initiation of the lightning leaders is not well understood. The electric field strength within the thundercloud is not typically large enough to initiate this process by itself.
One theory postulates that showers of relativistic electrons are created by cosmic rays and are then accelerated to higher velocities via a process called runaway breakdown.
As these relativistic electrons collide and ionize neutral air molecules, they initiate leader formation. Another theory involves locally enhanced electric fields being formed near elongated water droplets or ice crystals.
When a stepped leader approaches the ground, the presence of opposite charges on the ground enhances the strength of the electric field. The electric field is strongest on grounded objects whose tops are closest to the base of the thundercloud, such as trees and tall buildings.
If the electric field is strong enough, a positively charged ionic channel, called a positive or upward streamer , can develop from these points.
This was first theorized by Heinz Kasemir. As negatively charged leaders approach, increasing the localized electric field strength, grounded objects already experiencing corona discharge exceed a threshold and form upward streamers.
Once a downward leader connects to an available upward leader, a process referred to as attachment, a low-resistance path is formed and discharge may occur.
Photographs have been taken in which unattached streamers are clearly visible. The unattached downward leaders are also visible in branched lightning, none of which are connected to the earth, although it may appear they are.
High-speed videos can show the attachment process in progress. Once a conductive channel bridges the air gap between the negative charge excess in the cloud and the positive surface charge excess below, there is a large drop in resistance across the lightning channel.
Electrons accelerate rapidly as a result in a zone beginning at the point of attachment, which expands across the entire leader network at a fraction of the speed of light.
This is the 'return stroke' and it is the most luminous and noticeable part of the lightning discharge.
A large electric current flows along the plasma channel from the cloud to the ground, neutralising the positive ground charge as electrons flow away from the strike point to the surrounding area.
This huge surge of current creates large radial voltage differences along the surface of the ground. Called step potentials, they are responsible for more injuries and deaths than the strike itself.
The electric current of the return stroke averages 30 kiloamperes for a typical negative CG flash, often referred to as "negative CG" lightning. In some cases, a ground to cloud GC lightning flash may originate from a positively charged region on the ground below a storm.
These discharges normally originate from the tops of very tall structures, such as communications antennas. The massive flow of electric current occurring during the return stroke combined with the rate at which it occurs measured in microseconds rapidly superheats the completed leader channel, forming a highly electrically conductive plasma channel.
The core temperature of the plasma during the return stroke may exceed 50, K, causing it to brilliantly radiate with a blue-white color.
Once the electric current stops flowing, the channel cools and dissipates over tens or hundreds of milliseconds, often disappearing as fragmented patches of glowing gas.
The nearly instantaneous heating during the return stroke causes the air to expand explosively, producing a powerful shock wave which is heard as thunder.
High-speed videos examined frame-by-frame show that most negative CG lightning flashes are made up of 3 or 4 individual strokes, though there may be as many as Each re-strike is separated by a relatively large amount of time, typically 40 to 50 milliseconds, as other charged regions in the cloud are discharged in subsequent strokes.
Re-strikes often cause a noticeable " strobe light " effect. To understand why multiple return strokes utilize the same lightning channel, one needs to understand the behavior of positive leaders, which a typical ground flash effectively becomes following the negative leader's connection with the ground.
Positive leaders decay more rapidly than negative leaders do. For reasons not well understood, bidirectional leaders tend to initiate on the tips of the decayed positive leaders in which the negative end attempts to re-ionize the leader network.
These leaders, also called recoil leaders , usually decay shortly after their formation. When they do manage to make contact with a conductive portion of the main leader network, a return stroke-like process occurs and a dart leader travels across all or a portion of the length of the original leader.
The dart leaders making connections with the ground are what cause a majority of subsequent return strokes. Each successive stroke is preceded by intermediate dart leader strokes that have a faster rise time but lower amplitude than the initial return stroke.
Each subsequent stroke usually re-uses the discharge channel taken by the previous one, but the channel may be offset from its previous position as wind displaces the hot channel.
Since recoil and dart leader processes do not occur on negative leaders, subsequent return strokes very seldom utilize the same channel on positive ground flashes which are explained later in the article.
The electric current within a typical negative CG lightning discharge rises very quickly to its peak value in 1—10 microseconds, then decays more slowly over 50— microseconds.
The transient nature of the current within a lightning flash results in several phenomena that need to be addressed in the effective protection of ground-based structures.
Rapidly changing currents tend to travel on the surface of a conductor, in what is called the skin effect , unlike direct currents, which "flow-through" the entire conductor like water through a hose.
Hence, conductors used in the protection of facilities tend to be multi-stranded, with small wires woven together.
This increases the total bundle surface area in inverse proportion to the individual strand radius, for a fixed total cross-sectional area.
The rapidly changing currents also create electromagnetic pulses EMPs that radiate outward from the ionic channel. This is a characteristic of all electrical discharges.
The radiated pulses rapidly weaken as their distance from the origin increases. However, if they pass over conductive elements such as power lines, communication lines, or metallic pipes, they may induce a current which travels outward to its termination.
The surge current is inversely related to the Surge impedance Devices known as surge protectors SPD or transient voltage surge suppressors TVSS attached in parallel with these lines can detect the lightning flash's transient irregular current, and, through alteration of its physical properties, route the spike to an attached earthing ground , thereby protecting the equipment from damage.
There are variations of each type, such as "positive" versus "negative" CG flashes, that have different physical characteristics common to each which can be measured.
Different common names used to describe a particular lightning event may be attributed to the same or different events. Cloud-to-ground CG lightning is a lightning discharge between a thundercloud and the ground.
It is initiated by a stepped leader moving down from the cloud, which is met by a streamer moving up from the ground. CG is the least common, but best understood of all types of lightning.
It is easier to study scientifically, because it terminates on a physical object, namely the Earth, and lends itself to being measured by instruments on the ground.
Of the three primary types of lightning, it poses the greatest threat to life and property since it terminates or "strikes" the Earth.
The overall discharge, termed a flash, is composed of a number of processes such as preliminary breakdown, stepped leaders, connecting leaders, return strokes, dart leaders and subsequent return strokes.
Cloud-to-ground CG lightning is either positive or negative, as defined by the direction of the conventional electric current from cloud to ground.
Most CG lightning is negative, meaning that a negative charge is transferred to ground and electrons travel downward along the lightning channel.
The reverse happens in a positive CG flash, where electrons travel upward along the lightning channel and a positive charge is transferred to the ground.
There are six different mechanisms theorized to result in the formation of downward positive lightning. Contrary to popular belief, positive lightning flashes do not necessarily originate from the anvil or the upper positive charge region and strike a rain-free area outside of the thunderstorm.
This belief is based on the outdated idea that lightning leaders are unipolar in nature and originating from their respective charge region.
Positive lightning strikes tend to be much more intense than their negative counterparts. As a result of their greater power, as well as lack of warning, positive lightning strikes are considerably more dangerous.
Due to the aforementioned tendency for positive ground flashes to produce both high peak currents and long continuing current, they are capable of heating surfaces to much higher levels which increases the likelihood of a fire being ignited.
Positive lightning has also been shown to trigger the occurrence of upward lightning flashes from the tops of tall structures and is largely responsible for the initiation of sprites several tens of kilometers above ground level.
Positive lightning tends to occur more frequently in winter storms , as with thundersnow , during intense tornadoes  and in the dissipation stage of a thunderstorm.
A unique form of cloud-to-ground lightning exists where lightning appears to exit from the cumulonimbus cloud and propagate a considerable distance through clear air before veering towards, and striking, the ground.
For this reason, they are known as "bolts from the blue". Despite the popular misconception that these are positive lightning strikes due to them seemingly originating from the positive charge region, observations have shown that these are in fact negative flashes.
They begin as intracloud flashes within the cloud, the negative leader then exits the cloud from the positive charge region before propagating through clear air and striking the ground some distance away.
Lightning discharges may occur between areas of cloud without contacting the ground. When it occurs between two separate clouds it is known as inter-cloud lightning , and when it occurs between areas of differing electric potential within a single cloud it is known as intra-cloud lightning.
Intra-cloud lightning is the most frequently occurring type. Intra-cloud lightning most commonly occurs between the upper anvil portion and lower reaches of a given thunderstorm.
This lightning can sometimes be observed at great distances at night as so-called " sheet lightning ". In such instances, the observer may see only a flash of light without hearing any thunder.
Another term used for cloud—cloud or cloud—cloud—ground lightning is "Anvil Crawler", due to the habit of charge, typically originating beneath or within the anvil and scrambling through the upper cloud layers of a thunderstorm, often generating dramatic multiple branch strokes.
These are usually seen as a thunderstorm passes over the observer or begins to decay. The most vivid crawler behavior occurs in well developed thunderstorms that feature extensive rear anvil shearing.
Objects struck by lightning experience heat and magnetic forces of great magnitude. The heat created by lightning currents traveling through a tree may vaporize its sap, causing a steam explosion that bursts the trunk.
As lightning travels through sandy soil, the soil surrounding the plasma channel may melt, forming tubular structures called fulgurites.
Although 90 percent of people struck by lightning survive,  humans or animals struck by lightning may suffer severe injury due to internal organ and nervous system damage.
Buildings or tall structures hit by lightning may be damaged as the lightning seeks unintended paths to ground.
By safely conducting a lightning strike to ground, a lightning protection system can greatly reduce the probability of severe property damage.
Lightning also serves an important role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing diatomic nitrogen in the air into nitrates which are deposited by rain and can fertilize the growth of plants and other organisms.
Due to the conductive properties of Aluminium alloy , the fuselage acts as a Faraday cage. Because the electrostatic discharge of terrestrial lightning superheats the air to plasma temperatures along the length of the discharge channel in a short duration, kinetic theory dictates gaseous molecules undergo a rapid increase in pressure and thus expand outward from the lightning creating a shock wave audible as thunder.
Since the sound waves propagate not from a single point source but along the length of the lightning's path, the sound origin's varying distances from the observer can generate a rolling or rumbling effect.
Perception of the sonic characteristics is further complicated by factors such as the irregular and possibly branching geometry of the lightning channel, by acoustic echoing from terrain, and by the usually multiple-stroke characteristic of the lightning strike.
An observer can approximate the distance to the strike by timing the interval between the visible lightning and the audible thunder it generates.
A flash preceding thunder by five seconds would indicate a distance of approximately 1. Consequently, a lightning strike observed at a very close distance will be accompanied by a sudden clap of thunder, with almost no perceptible time lapse, possibly accompanied by the smell of ozone O 3.
Anecdotally, there are many examples of people saying 'the storm was directly overhead or all-around and yet there was no thunder'. Sign In Don't have an account?
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